Skin photoaging and the role of antioxidants in its prevention.
Photoaging of the skin depends primarily on the degree of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and on an amount of melanin in the skin (skin phototype). In addition to direct or indirect DNA damage, UVR activates cell surface receptors of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the skin, which leads to a breakdown of collagen in the extracellular matrix and a shutdown of new collagen synthesis. It is hypothesized that dermal collagen breakdown is followed by imperfect repair that yields a deficit in the structural integrity of the skin, formation of a solar scar, and ultimately clinically visible skin atrophy and wrinkles. Many studies confirmed that acute exposure of human skin to UVR leads to oxidation of cellular biomolecules that could be prevented by prior antioxidant treatment and to depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Skin has a network of all major endogenous enzymatic and nonenzymatic protective antioxidants, but their role in protecting cells against oxidative damage generated by UV radiation has not been elucidated. It seems that skin's antioxidative defence is also influenced by vitamins and nutritive factors and that combination of different antioxidants simultaneously provides synergistic effect.
Skin photoaging and the role of antioxidants in its prevention. ISRN Dermatol. 2013 September