Cysteine and homocysteine as biomarker of various diseases
Cysteine and homocysteine (Hcy), both sulfur-containing amino acids (AAs), produced from methionine another sulfur-containing amino acid, which is converted to Hcy and further converted to cysteine. This article aims to highlight the link between cysteine and Hcy, and their mechanisms, important functions, play in the body and their role as a biomarker for various types of diseases. So that using cysteine and Hcy as a biomarker, we can prevent and diagnose many diseases. This review concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia (elevated levels of homocysteine) is considered as toxic for cells and is associated with different health problems. Hyperhomocysteinemia and low levels of cysteine associated with various diseases like cardiovascular diseases (CVD), ischemic stroke, neurological disorders, diabetes, cancer like lung and colorectal cancer, renal dysfunction-linked conditions, and vitiligo.