Study Title:

Assessing the Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1nCoV-19 COVID-19 Vaccination in Prevention of Hospitalisations in Elderly and Frail Adults: A Single Centre Test Negative Case-Control Study.

Study Abstract

Background: On 8th December 2020, deployment of the first vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 authorised for UK use, the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2, began, followed by the adenoviral vector vaccine ChAdOx1nCoV-19 on 4th January 2021. Initially care home-residents and staff, frontline healthcare workers and adults from age 80 were targeted. In phase 3 trials, BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1nCoV-19 demonstrated 95% and 70% efficacy, respectively, after two doses against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, few data exist regarding the effectiveness of these vaccines in elderly frail people. Evaluation following implementation to determine the effectiveness of one dose in reducing hospitalisations due to SARS-CoV-2 infection in elderly adults is urgent.

Methods: A prospective single-centre test-negative design case-control study of adults aged ≥80 years hospitalised with COVID-19 disease or other acute respiratory disease. We conducted logistic regression controlling for time (week), gender, index of multiple deprivations (IMD), and care residency status (CRS), and sensitivity analyses matched for time and gender using a conditional logistic model adjusting for IMD and CRS.

Findings: First dose vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 was 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.5-90.6). ChAdOx1nCoV-19 first dose vaccine effectiveness was 80.4% (95% CI 36.4-94.5). When effectiveness analysis for BNT162b2 was restricted to the period covered by ChAdOx1nCoV-19, the estimate was 79.3% (95% CI 47.0-92.5).

Interpretation: A single dose of either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1nCoV-19 vaccine resulted in substantial reductions in the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalisation in elderly, frail patients with extensive co-morbid disease.

Study Information

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