Vitamins D, K1, & K2 Lacking in Hip Fracture Patients
Although hip fracture is considered to be associated with hypovitaminosis D and K, few reports have previously studied both of them. We have studied the vitamin D- and K-status as well as the general nutritional status in ninety-nine patients with hip fracture. Mean serum concentration of 25hydroxy-vitamin D (25OH-D) in female fractured patients was only approximately 9 ng/mL, suggesting severe vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference between the two groups in serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone in both genders and serum 25OH-D levels in the male subjects. Plasma concentrations of phylloquinone (vitamin K1; PK) and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) were significantly lower in the fractured group than in the control group in both genders. Logistic regression analysis indicated that circulating concentrations of albumin, PK and 25OH-D were the significant and independent determinants of fracture risk, with their higher concentrations associated with decreased fracture risk. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to summarize the clinical parameters into smaller numbers of independent components. Three components were obtained, each representing the overall nutritional status, the vitamin D status, and the vitamin K status. In conclusion, our study has shown that patients with hip fracture have vitamin D and K deficiency independent of general malnutrition.
Nakano T, Tsugawa N, Kuwabara A, Kamao M, Tanaka K, Okano T. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and K in patients with hip fracture. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011 May Department of Health and Nutrition, Osaka Shoin Women's University, 4-2-26 Hishiyanishi, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8550 Japan.