Vitamin D supplementation rescues simvastatin induced myopathy in mice via improving mitochondrial cristae shape
Statin induced myopathy (SIM) is a main deleterious effect leading to the poor treatment compliance, while the preventive or therapeutic treatments are absent. Mounting evidences demonstrated that vitamin D plays a vital role in muscle as a direct modulator. The deficiency of vitamin D was considered as a cause of muscle dysfunction, whereas the supplementation resulted in a remission. However, there is no causal proof that vitamin D supplementation rescues SIM. Here, using the mice model of simvastatin-induced myopathy, we investigated the role of vitamin D supplementation and the mechanisms associated with mitochondria. Results indicated that simvastatin administration (80 mg/kg) impaired skeletal muscle with the increased serum creatine kinase (CK) level and the declined grip strength, which were alleviated by vitamin D supplementation. Moreover, vitamin D supplementation rescued the energy metabolism dysfunction in simvastatin-treated mice gastrocnemius by reducing the abnormal aggregation of muscular glycogen and lactic acid. Mitochondrial homeostasis plays a key role in the process of energy metabolism. Thus, the mitochondrial dysfunction is a mortal damage for the highly energy-requiring tissue. In our study, the mitochondrial cristae observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM) were lytic in simvastatin-treated gastrocnemius. Interestingly, vitamin D supplementation improved the mitochondrial cristae shape by regulating the expression of mitofusin-1/2 (MFN1/2), optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). As expected, the mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress was mitigated by vitamin D supplementation. In conclusion, these findings suggested that moderate vitamin D supplementation rescued simvastatin induced myopathy via improving the mitochondrial cristae shape and function.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol . 2020 Aug 15;401:115076. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2020.115076. Epub 2020 May 30.