Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Cathelicidin-Driven Immune Response
The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) enhances innate immunity by inducing the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP). In monocytes/macrophages, this occurs primarily in response to activation of TLR, that induce expression of the vitamin D receptor and localized synthesis of 1,25(OH)(2)D from precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25OHD). To clarify the relationship between vitamin D and innate immunity, we assessed changes in hCAP expression in vivo and ex vivo in human subjects attending a bone clinic (n = 50). Of these, 38% were vitamin D-insufficient (<75 nM 25OHD) and received supplementation with vitamin D (50,000 IU vitamin D(2) twice weekly for 5 wk). Baseline 25OHD status or vitamin D supplementation had no effect on circulating levels of hCAP. Therefore, ex vivo changes in hCAP for each subject were assessed using peripheral blood monocytes cultured with 10% autologous serum (n = 28). Under these vitamin D "insufficient" conditions the TLR2/1 ligand 19 kDa lipopeptide or the TLR4 ligand LPS, monocytes showed increased expression of the vitamin D-activating enzyme CYP27b1 (5- and 5.5-fold, respectively, both p < 0.01) but decreased expression of hCAP mRNA (10-fold and 30-fold, both p < 0.001). Following treatment with 19 kDa, expression of hCAP: 1) correlated with 25OHD levels in serum culture supplements (R = 0.649, p < 0.001), 2) was significantly enhanced by exogenous 25OHD (5 nM), and 3) was significantly enhanced with serum from vivo vitamin D-supplemented patients. These data suggest that a key role of vitamin D in innate immunity is to maintain localized production of antibacterial hCAP following TLR activation of monocytes.
Adams JS, Ren S, Liu PT, Chun RF, Lagishetty V, Gombart AF, Borregaard N, Modlin RL, Hewison M. Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses. J Immunol. 2009 April Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California at Los Angeles, 90095, USA.