Visual deficits after traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently described as any head injury ceasing the brain's normal function. Anatomically, developmentally, and physiologically, the eye is deemed as an extension of the brain. Vision in TBI is underrepresented, and the number of active clinical trials in this field are sparse. Frequently, visual problems are overlooked at the time of TBI, often resulting in progressive vision loss, lengthening, and impairing rehabilitation. TBI can be either penetrative or non-penetrative, associated with degeneration of neurons, apoptotic cell death, inflammation, microglial activation, hemorrhage associated with vascular dysfunction; however, precise animal modeling that mimics the extensive visual deficits of TBI pathology remain elusive. Recent works in both the diagnostics and therapeutics fields are starting to make substantial progress in the right direction. Discussion of current advancements in TBI animal models and the recent pathophysiological findings related to the neuro-glia-vascular unit (NVU) will help elucidate novel targets for potential therapeutics lines. Only over the past decade have newer pharmaceutical and stem cell-based treatments begun to come to light. The potency for these new lines of TBI specific curatives will be discussed along with the review of current blast-induced TBI models, providing potential directions for future research.
Histol Histopathol. 2021 Jul;36(7):711-724. doi: 10.14670/HH-18-315. Epub 2021 Feb 18. PMID: 33599281.