Typical breakfast food consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a large sample of Italian adults
Method sand results: 18,177 subjects (53,2% women), aged ≥ 35 yrs, randomly selected from the Moli-sani Project population were studied. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) FFQ was used for dietary assessment. To derive breakfast pattern, an "a priori" approach was used: firstly, foods typical of the Italian breakfast were selected: milk, coffee, tea, yogurt, crispbread/rusks, breakfast cereals, brioche, biscuits, honey, sugar and jam. The breakfast score was obtained adding the amounts of all selected foods, expressed in grams/day, previously standardized to mean zero and standard deviation 1. Subjects showing a higher breakfast score appeared to be younger, more frequently women or smokers, with higher social status but less likely practicing physical activity. After multivariable analyses, subjects with a higher breakfast food consumption had a lower risk to have high body mass index, abdominal obesity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (P < 0.0001 for all) and C Reactive Protein (P = 0.022). The associations were unrelated to age, sex, smoking, obesity, physical activity and social status. Subjects with a higher food breakfast score also showed a better physical healthy status score, a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.63; 0.55-0.72 95% CI) and of future CVD (P < 0.0001 for both women and men).
Conclusion: Consumption of typical Italian breakfast foods positively affects CVD risk profile in an adult Italian population.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Apr;22(4):347-54. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2010.07.006. Epub 2010 Nov 18. PMID: 21093229.