Triclosan Accelerates Liver Clearance of Thyroid Hormone
Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) is a chlorinated phenolic antibacterial compound found in consumer products. In vitro human pregnane X receptor activation, hepatic phase I enzyme induction, and decreased in vivo total thyroxine (T4) suggest adverse effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis. Current research tested the hypothesis that triclosan decreases circulating T4 via upregulation of hepatic catabolism and transport. Weanling female Long-Evans rats received triclosan (0-1000 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 days. Whole blood and liver were collected 24 h later. Total serum T4, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Hepatic microsomal assays measured ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase enzyme activities. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of cytochrome P450s 1a1, 2b1/2, and 3a1/23; UGTs 1a1, 1a6, and 2b5; sulfotransferases 1c1 and 1b1; and hepatic transporters Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Mrp2, and Mdr1b was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Total T4 decreased dose responsively, down to 43% of control at 1000 mg/kg/day. Total T3 was decreased to 89 and 75% of control at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day. TSH did not change. Triclosan dose dependently increased PROD activity up to 900% of control at 1000 mg/kg/day. T4 glucuronidation increased nearly twofold at 1000 mg/kg/day. Cyp2b1/2 and Cyp3a1/23 mRNA expression levels were induced twofold and fourfold at 300 mg/kg/day. Ugt1a1 and Sult1c1 mRNA expression levels increased 2.2-fold and 2.6-fold at 300 mg/kg/day. Transporter mRNA expression levels were unchanged. These data denote important key events in the mode of action for triclosan-induced hypothyroxinemia in rats and suggest that this effect may be partially due to upregulation of hepatic catabolism but not due to mRNA expression changes in the tested hepatic transporters.
Paul KB, Hedge JM, DeVito MJ, Crofton KM. Short-term exposure to triclosan decreases thyroxine in vivo via upregulation of hepatic catabolism in Young Long-Evans rats Toxicol Sci. 2010 February Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, USA.