Tocotrienols Protect Immune Cells from Free Radical Damage
Vitamin E has been suggested to modulate age-associated changes by altering the redox balance resulting in altered gene and/or protein expression. Here we have utilized proteomics to determine whether such regulation in protein expression occurs in human lymphocytes from two different age groups stressed with H(2)O(2) and then treated with vitamin E in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF). In this study, lymphocytes obtained from young (30-49 years old) and old (>50 years old) volunteers were first challenged with 1 mM H(2)O(2.) They were then treated by exposure to 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml TRF. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight) tandem mass spectrometry was then performed on whole-cell protein extracts to identify proteins that have changed in expression. A total of 24 proteins were found to be affected by H(2)O(2) and/or TRF treatment. These included proteins that were related to metabolism, antioxidants, structural proteins, protein degradation and signal transduction. Of particular interest was the regulation of a number of proteins involved in stress response-peroxiredoxin-2, peroxiredoxin-3 and peroxiredoxin-6-all of which were shown to be down-regulated with H(2)O(2) exposure. The effect was reversed following TRF treatment. The expression of peroxiredoxin-2 and peroxiredoxin-6 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that TRF directly influenced the expression dynamics of the peroxiredoxin-2, thus improving the cells ability to resist damage caused by oxidative stress.
Dahlan HM, Karsani SA, Rahman MA, Hamid NA, Top AG, Ngah WZ. Proteomic analysis reveals that treatment with tocotrienols reverses the effect of H(2)O(2) exposure on peroxiredoxin expression in human lymphocytes from young and old individuals. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 July Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur City Campus, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.