One of the requisite of cancer chemopreventive agent is elimination of damaged or malignant cells through cell cycle inhibition or induction of apoptosis without affecting normal cells. In this study, employing normal human prostate epithelial cells (PrEC), virally transformed normal human prostate epithelial cells (PZ-HPV-7), and human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3), we evaluated the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) extracted from palm oil. TRF treatment to PrEC and PZ-HPV-7 resulted in almost identical growth-inhibitory responses of low magnitude. In sharp contrast, TRF treatment resulted in significant decreases in cell viability and colony formation in all three prostate cancer cell lines. The IC(50) values after 24h TRF treatment in LNCaP, PC-3, and DU145 cells were in the order 16.5, 17.5, and 22.0 microg/ml. TRF treatment resulted in significant apoptosis in all the cell lines as evident from (i) DNA fragmentation, (ii) fluorescence microscopy, and (iii) cell death detection ELISA, whereas the PrEC and PZ-HPV-7 cells did not undergo apoptosis, but showed modestly decreased cell viability only at a high dose of 80 microg/ml. In cell cycle analysis, TRF (10-40 microg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent G0/G1 phase arrest and sub G1 accumulation in all three cancer cell lines but not in PZ-HPV-7 cells. These results suggest that the palm oil derivative TRF is capable of selectively inhibiting cellular proliferation and accelerating apoptotic events in prostate cancer cells. TRF offers significant promise as a chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent against prostate cancer.
Srivastava JK, Gupta S. Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis selectively in human prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 July Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.