The vagus neurometabolic interface and clinical disease.
The nervous system both monitors and modulates body metabolism to maintain homoeostasis. In disease states such as obesity and diabetes, the neurometabolic interface is dysfunctional and contributes to clinical illness. The vagus nerve, in particular, with both sensory and motor fibres, provides an anatomical substrate for this interface. Its sensory fibres contain receptors for important circulating metabolic mediators, including leptin and cholecystokinin, and provide real-time information about these mediators to the central nervous system. In turn, efferent fibres within the vagus nerve participate in a brain-gut axis to regulate metabolism. In this review, we describe these vagus nerve-mediated metabolic pathways and recent clinical trials of vagus nerve stimulation for the management of obesity. These early studies suggest that neuromodulation approaches that employ electricity to tune neurometabolic circuits may represent a new tool in the clinical armamentarium directed against obesity.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 Jun;42(6):1101-1111. doi: 10.1038/s41366-018-0086-1. Epub 2018 May 24.