Study Title:

The relationship between smartphone use and dry eye disease: A systematic review with a narrative synthesis.

Study Abstract

Background: Emerging research findings suggest a potential relationship between smartphone use (SPU) and dry eye disease (DED), which has not been systematically reviewed.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize evidence on the relationship between SPU and DED.

Methods: A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO bibliographic databases from their inception to January 15, 2021. Study screening, full-text assessment, study selection and exclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment was performed independently by at least two review authors.

Results: Four studies were included in the review (3 cross-sectional studies and 1 nonrandomized clinical trial). A narrative synthesis of findings was used due to heterogeneity among study designs and measures of association summarizing the relationship between SPU and DED. All included studies were conducted in South Korea and included school children, college students, or young adults. Three of the 4 included studies showed an association between SPU and DED.

Conclusions: There is some evidence that SPU is associated with DED. However, this evidence is limited by a small number of studies of satisfactory methodological quality. There is a great need for high-quality studies to further investigate the relationship between SPU and DED and identify mechanisms underlying this potential relationship. This information is important for raising public awareness about the negative effect of SPU on eye health and development of clinical guidelines for this potentially emerging SPU-driven eye condition.

Study Information

Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Sep 24;100(38):e27311. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000027311. PMID: 34559146.

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