The potential health benefits of dietary natural plant products in age related eye diseases
In the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of cases of age-related eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. These diseases are the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness all over the world and are associated with many pathological risk factors such as aging, pollution, high levels of glucose (hyperglycaemia), high metabolic rates, and light exposure. These risk factors lead to the generation of uncontrollable reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of age-related eye diseases through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and lipid peroxidation, which leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines, angiogenesis, protein and DNA damages, apoptosis that causes macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This review provides updated information on the beneficial effects of dietary natural plant products (DPNPs) against age-related eye diseases. In this review, supplementation of DPNPs demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects on people at risk of or with age-related eye diseases due to their capacity to scavenge free radicals, ameliorate inflammatory molecules, neutralize the oxidation reaction that occurs in photoreceptor cells, decrease vascular endothelial growth factor and the blood-retinal barrier and increase the antioxidant defence system. However, further experiments and clinical trials are required to establish the daily doses of DPNPs that will safely and effectively prevent age-related eye diseases.
Heliyon. 2020;6(7):e04408. Published 2020 Jul 10. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04408