The Potential for Reducing Lynch Syndrome Cancer Risk with Nutritional Nrf2 Activators.
Lynch syndrome (LS), is an autosomal dominant disorder predisposing patients to multiple cancers, predominantly colorectal (CRC) and endometrial, and is implicated in 2-4% of all CRC cases. LS is characterized by mutations of four mismatch repair (MMR) genes which code for proteins responsible for recognizing and repairing DNA lesions occurring through multiple mechanisms including oxidative stress (OS). Increased OS can cause DNA mutations and is considered carcinogenic. Due to reduced MMR activity, LS patients have an increased risk of cancer as a result of a decreased ability to recognize and repair DNA lesions caused by OS. Due to its carcinogenic properties, reducing the level of OS may reduce the risk of cancer. Nutritional Nrf2 activators have been shown to reduce the risk of carcinogenesis in the general population through activation of the endogenous antioxidant system. Common nutritional Nrf2 activators include sulforaphane, curcumin, DATS, quercetin, resveratrol, and EGCG. Since LS patients are more susceptible to carcinogenesis caused by OS, it is hypothesized that nutritional Nrf2 activators may have the potential to reduce the risk of cancer in those with LS by modulating OS and inflammation. The purpose of this paper is to review the available evidence in support of this statement.