The influence of short-term sedentary behavior on circadian rhythm of heart rate and heart rate variability.
The notion that sedentary behavior is harmful to human health is widespread. Little is known about the short term influence of sedentary behavior on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) circadian rhythms. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of short term sedentary behavior on the circadian rhythms of HR and HRV using cosine periodic regression analysis. Sixteen healthy young students were included in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent 24-h ECG Holter monitoring in two different states of physical activity, an active condition (more than 15,000 steps per day) and a sedentary condition (less than 1,000 steps per day). Hourly mean values were calculated for HR and HRV, and then were evaluated using cosine periodic regression analysis. The circadian rhythm parameters, amplitude, mesor, and acrophase for HR and HRV variables were obtained. As a result, the significance of the circadian rhythm was confirmed for all variables in each condition. The measure of fit R2 value was decreased in sedentary condition. The amplitude of the sedentary condition was significantly smaller than that of the active condition with respect to HR (7.94 ± 1.91 bpm vs. 15.4 ± 3.93 bpm, p < 0.001), natural log of the high frequency measurement (lnHF) (0.38 ± 0.21 ms2 vs. 0.80 ± 0.28 ms2, p < 0.001), and low frequency/high frequency ratio (LF/HF) (0.75 ± 0.54 vs. 1.24 ± 0.69, p = 0.008). We found that sedentary behavior not only significantly lowered the amplitude of HR and HRV variables, but also might have led to weakness of the circadian rhythm of the HR and HRV variables.