The effects of dietary patterns and food groups on symptomatic osteoarthritis: A systematic review.
Aim: To systematically review current literature to determine the association between symptomatic osteoarthritis and dietary patterns, diet quality and food groups in adults aged ≥45 years.
Methods: The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021270891). Cochrane Central Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Medline and Web of Science databases were searched. A total of 3816 records were identified. Eligible articles involved populations aged ≥45 years with symptomatic osteoarthritis, assessing dietary patterns, diet quality or food groups, with pain in joints as outcomes. The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklists were used for quality assessment. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation was used to assess the certainty of evidence.
Results: Six cohort studies were included. The Prudent dietary pattern and the Mediterranean dietary pattern reduced the progression of osteoarthritis symptoms. The Western dietary pattern increased symptomatic osteoarthritis progression. Increased total fibre consumption reduced symptomatic osteoarthritis progression and pain worsening, but the effects of fibre from each food group were inconclusive. Diet with high inflammatory potential increased risk of new onset symptomatic osteoarthritis, but the effects of overall diet quality were inconclusive.
Conclusions: The Prudent dietary pattern showed the highest protection on symptomatic osteoarthritis in adults aged 45 years and over. The body of evidence is limited, suggesting that further research is needed to corroborate the estimated effect at a high certainty of evidence, and to incorporate previously unstudied dietary patterns and food groups. Identifying the most beneficial dietary pattern may inform future guidelines for reducing symptomatic osteoarthritis in middle aged and older adults.