Squalene Stimulates a Key Innate Immune Cell to Foster Wound Healing and Tissue Repair.
Anti-inflammatory effects of virgin olive oil (VOO) have been described recently, along with its wound healing effect. One of the main minor compounds found in VOO is squalene (SQ), which also possesses preventive effects against skin damage and anti-inflammatory properties. The inflammatory response is involved in wound healing and manages the whole process by macrophages, among others, as the main innate cells with a critical role in the promotion and resolution of inflammation for tissue repair. Because of that, this work is claimed to describe the role that squalene exerts in the immunomodulation of M1 proinflammatory macrophages, which are the first cells implicate in recent injuries. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were analysed using TPH1 cell experimental model. SQ induced an increase in the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, IL-13, and IL-4, and a decrease in proinflammatory signals, such as TNF-α and NF-κB in M1 proinflammatory macrophages. Furthermore, SQ enhanced remodelling and repairing signals (TIMP-2) and recruitment signals of eosinophils and neutrophils, responsible for phagocytosis processes. These results suggest that SQ is able to promote wound healing by driving macrophage response in inflammation. Therefore, squalene could be useful at the resolution stage of wound healing.