Sodium Intake Can Alter Arterial Health in those with High Blood Pressure
The mechanisms by which dietary sodium modulates cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. This study investigated whether sodium intake is related to carotid structure and hemodynamics and to plasma matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in hypertensive adults. One hundred thirty-four participants were cross-sectionally evaluated by clinical history, anthropometry, carotid ultrasound, and analysis of hemodynamic, inflammatory, and metabolic variables. Daily sodium intake (DSI) was estimated by 24-h recall, discretionary sodium, and a FFQ. In 42 patients, plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were also analyzed. The mean DSI was 5.52 ± 0.29 g/d. Univariate analysis showed that DSI correlated with common carotid artery systolic and diastolic diameter (r = 0.36 and 0.34; both P < 0.001), peak and mean circumferential tension (r = 0.44 and 0.39; both P < 0.001), Young's Elastic Modulus (r = 0.40; P < 0.001), intima-media thickness (r = 0.19; P < 0.05), and internal carotid artery resistive index (r = 0.20; P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that only artery diameter, circumferential wall tension, and Young's Elastic Modulus were independently associated with DSI. Conversely, plasma MMP-9 activity was associated with DSI (r = 0.53; P < 0.001) as well as with common carotid systolic diameter (r = 0.33; P < 0.05) and Young's Elastic Modulus (r = 0.38; P < 0.01). In conclusion, sodium intake is associated with carotid alterations in hypertensive adults independently of systemic hemodynamic variables. The present findings also suggest that increased MMP-9 activity might play a role in sodium-induced vascular remodeling.
Ferreira-Sae MC, Cipolli JA, Cornélio ME, Matos-Souza JR, Fernandes MN, Schreiber R, Costa FO, Franchini KG, Rodrigues RC, Gallani MC, Nadruz W Jr. Sodium intake is associated with carotid artery structure alterations and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 upregulation in hypertensive adults. J Nutr. 2011 May Department of Internal Medicine, and Department of Nursing, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas SP, Brazil.