Role of the dopaminergic system in the development of myopia in children and adolescents.
This review summarizes the experimental evidence that supports the role of dopamine in the regulation of ocular axial growth. The most important functions attributed to dopamine are light adaptation and regulation of the retinal circadian rhythm. An increase of the retinal levels of dopamine activates D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors present throughout the retina, generating a signal that inhibits axial growth once the eye has reached emmetropization. Researchers induced form-deprivation myopia in animal models in order to assess the different changes of ocular axial growth. Other studies have shown that phenylethylamine is an endogenous precursor-neurotransmitter capable of modulating the activity of dopamine. Considering the role of the dopaminergic system in the development of myopia (in children and adolescents) and the fact that phenylethylamine improves the consequences of a dopamine deficit, it would be interesting to study the effect of phenylethylamine on the regulation of axial growth, which represents the genesis of myopia.