Role of Mitochondria in Physiology of Chondrocytes and Diseases of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Purpose of review: Mitochondria are recognized to be one of the most important organelles in chondrocytes for their role in triphosphate (ATP) generation through aerobic phosphorylation. Mitochondria also participate in many intracellular processes involving modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS), responding to instantaneous hypoxia stress, regulating cytoplasmic transport of calcium ion, and directing mitophagy to maintain the homeostasis of individual chondrocytes.
Designs: To summarize the specific role of mitochondria in chondrocytes, we screened related papers in PubMed database and the search strategy is ((mitochondria) AND (chondrocyte)) AND (English [Language]). The articles published in the past 5 years were included and 130 papers were studied.
Results: In recent years, the integrity of mitochondrial structure has been regarded as a prerequisite for normal chondrocyte survival and defect in mitochondrial function has been found in cartilage-related diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the understanding of mitochondria in cartilage is still largely limited. The mechanism on how the changes in mitochondrial structure and function directly lead to the occurrence and development of cartilage-related diseases remains to be elusive.
Conclusion: This review aims to summarize the role of mitochondria in chondrocytes under the physiological and pathological changes from ATP generation, calcium homeostasis, redox regulation, mitophagy modulation, mitochondria biogenesis to immune response activation. The enhanced understanding of molecular mechanisms in mitochondria might offer some new cues for cartilage remodeling and pathological intervention.