Choline is essential for maintaining the structure and function of cells in humans. Choline plays an important role in eye health and disease. It is a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system, and it is involved in the production and secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. It also contributes to the stability of the cells and tears on the ocular surface and is involved in retinal development and differentiation. Choline deficiency is associated with retinal hemorrhage, glaucoma, and dry eye syndrome. Choline supplementation may be effective for treating these diseases.