Resveratrol Induces Brain Resilience Against Alzheimer Neurodegeneration Through Proteostasis Enhancement.
Resveratrol is a natural compound that mimics the antioxidant and antiaging effects of caloric restriction, mainly mediated through SIRT1, a deacetylase that induces longevity and neuroprotection. We aimed to analyze the effects of resveratrol on the brain status of control non-transgenic (NoTg) and AD transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice to discern the mechanisms involved in a potential inducement of resilience against age-related neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mice were fed with a diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg of resveratrol from 2 months of age during 10 months. Resveratrol administration induced complete protection against memory loss and brain pathology in 3xTg-AD mice, and also induced cognitive enhancement in healthy NoTg mice. Resveratrol improved exploration and reduced anxiety in both mouse strains, indicative of well-being. Resveratrol reduced the presence of Aβ and p-tau pathology in the hippocampus of the 3xTg-AD mouse. Proteostasis analysis showed the following in both NoTg and 3xTg-AD mice: (i) increased levels of the amyloid-degrading enzyme neprilysin, (ii) reduction of the amyloidogenic secretase BACE1, and (iii) increase of proteasome protein levels and enhancement of proteasome activity. Resveratrol also increased AMPK protein levels, then upregulating the SIRT1 pathway, as shown by the activation of PGC-1α and CREB in both mice, resulting in further beneficial changes. Our data demonstrated that resveratrol induces cognitive enhancement and neuroprotection against amyloid and tau pathologies. Improvement of proteostasis by resveratrol, in both healthy and AD mice, suggests that it is a mechanism of brain resilience and defense against neurodegeneration caused by the accumulation of aberrant proteins.