Replacing carbohydrate with protein and fat in prediabetes or type-2 diabetes: greater effect on metabolites in PBMC than plasma.
Active metabolism of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could suggest their suitability for metabolomics studies. This study examined whether reductions in PBMCs and plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activities induced by dietary intervention affected the overall metabolic profiles of PBMC and plasma.
Eighty nonobese subjects aged 40-70 years (18.5 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m(2)) with prediabetes or newly-diagnosed type-2 diabetes were assigned to consume either the usual refined-rice diet (control group, n = 40) or to replace refined rice with whole grains and legumes as carbohydrates (whole-grain group, n = 40) for three meals per day during the 12-week intervention. Fasting PBMC and plasma metabolomes were profiled using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.
After 12 weeks, changes in fasting glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, MDA, ox-LDL, LDL particle size, plasma Lp-PLA2 activity, and PBMC enzyme activity in the whole-grain group were significantly different from those in the control group before and after adjusting for baseline levels. The PBMC levels of L-leucine, oleamide, lysoPC (16:0), and lysoPC (18:0) in the whole-grain group showed greater reductions compared with those of the control group. Changes in plasma metabolites were not significantly different between the two groups. Changes in PBMC Lp-PLA2 activity positively correlated with changes in L-leucine, oleamide, lysoPC (16:0), lysoPC (18:0), glucose, and ox-LDL, and negatively correlated with changes in LDL particle size.
This study showed that dietary intervention in prediabetic or type-2 diabetic patients had a greater effect on PBMC Lp-PLA2 activity and metabolites compared with those of plasma metabolites.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016 Jan 19;13:3. doi: 10.1186/s12986-016-0063-4. eCollection 2016.