Study Title:

Replacing carbohydrate with protein and fat in prediabetes or type-2 diabetes: greater effect on metabolites in PBMC than plasma.

Study Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Active metabolism of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could suggest their suitability for metabolomics studies. This study examined whether reductions in PBMCs and plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activities induced by dietary intervention affected the overall metabolic profiles of PBMC and plasma.
METHODS:
Eighty nonobese subjects aged 40-70 years (18.5 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m(2)) with prediabetes or newly-diagnosed type-2 diabetes were assigned to consume either the usual refined-rice diet (control group, n = 40) or to replace refined rice with whole grains and legumes as carbohydrates (whole-grain group, n = 40) for three meals per day during the 12-week intervention. Fasting PBMC and plasma metabolomes were profiled using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.
RESULTS:
After 12 weeks, changes in fasting glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, MDA, ox-LDL, LDL particle size, plasma Lp-PLA2 activity, and PBMC enzyme activity in the whole-grain group were significantly different from those in the control group before and after adjusting for baseline levels. The PBMC levels of L-leucine, oleamide, lysoPC (16:0), and lysoPC (18:0) in the whole-grain group showed greater reductions compared with those of the control group. Changes in plasma metabolites were not significantly different between the two groups. Changes in PBMC Lp-PLA2 activity positively correlated with changes in L-leucine, oleamide, lysoPC (16:0), lysoPC (18:0), glucose, and ox-LDL, and negatively correlated with changes in LDL particle size.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study showed that dietary intervention in prediabetic or type-2 diabetic patients had a greater effect on PBMC Lp-PLA2 activity and metabolites compared with those of plasma metabolites.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
NCT02191644.

Study Information

Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016 Jan 19;13:3. doi: 10.1186/s12986-016-0063-4. eCollection 2016.

Full Study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788114