Myopia, a pandemic refractive error, is affecting more and more people. The progression of myopia could cause numerously serious complications, even leading to blindness. This review summarizes the epidemiological studies on myopia after 2018 and analyzes the risk factors associated with myopia. The prevalence of myopia varies in different regions, age, and observation time. East Asia has been gripped by an unprecedented rise in myopia, and other parts of the world have also seen an increase. The prevalence of myopia in children continues to rise and aggravates with age. The prevalence of high myopia has also increased along with myopia. Racial dependence and family aggregation can be seen frequently in myopia patients. Increased outdoor activities are proven to be protective factors for myopia, as near-distance work and higher education levels affect in the opposite. The impact of gender or urbanization on myopia is controversial. The relationship between nutrition, digital screens, Kawasaki disease, pregnant women smoking during pregnancy, and myopia is still not clear for lack of sufficient evidence. Understanding the various factors that affect myopia helps to clarify the mechanism of myopia formation and also to formulate reasonable prevention and control measures of myopia to protect people's health, especially for adolescents.