Study Title:

Protective Effect of Glycomacropeptide on Food Allergy with Gastrointestinal Manifestations in a Rat Model through Down-Regulation of Type 2 Immune Response.

Study Abstract

Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a bioactive peptide derived from milk κ-casein with immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse immune reaction with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Allergen intake induces persistent intestinal inflammation and tissue damage. In this study, the anti-allergic activity of GMP was evaluated using a rat ovalbumin (OVA)-induced FA model with gastrointestinal manifestation. Rats were orally GMP treated from 3 days prior and during FA development. The severity of food anaphylaxis and diarrheal episodes, antibody production and histamine level were measured. Histopathological changes, inflammation and predominant cytokine profile at intestine were analyzed. Oral GMP intake decreased clinical signs and diarrhea severity induced by allergen, with a significant reduction in intestinal edema and expression level of IL-1β and TNF-α. Prophylaxis with GMP also diminished serum anti-OVA IgE and IgG1, and histamine levels. GMP treatment markedly decreased eosinophil infiltration, mast cell and goblet cell hyperplasia, total IgE expression in intestine, and prevented histological changes in villi, crypts and internal muscularis layer. The treatment effectively suppressed IL-5, IL-13 and GATA3 expression and skewed the intestinal cytokine profile toward type 1 and regulatory. These results suggest that GMP may protect against FA through down-regulating the type 2 inflammatory response.

Study Information

Nutrients. 2020 Sep 25;12(10):2942. doi: 10.3390/nu12102942. PMID: 32992996; PMCID: PMC7601722.

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