Protecting the BBB endothelium against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress using popular antiox
Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) exposed to realistic concentrations (comparable to a chronic heavy smoker) of Cigarette Smoke Extract (CSE) triggers a strong endothelial inflammatory response which can lead to the onset of neurological disorders. The involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in this inflammatory cascade is evident from the up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2), a transcription factor involved in anti-oxidant response signaling in CSE exposed endothelial cells. We have shown that pre-treatment with α-tocopherol and/or ascorbic acid is highly protective for the BBB, thus suggesting that, prophylactic administration of antioxidants can reduce CSE and/or inflammatory-dependent BBB damage. We have assessed and ranked the protective effects of 5 popular OTC antioxidants (Coenzyme Q10, melatonin, glutathione, lipoic acid and resveratrol) against CSE-induced BBB endothelial damage using hCMEC/D3 cells. The analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines release by ELISA revealed that resveratrol, lipoic acid melatonin and Co-Q10 inhibited the BBB endothelial release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, reduced (not Co-Q10) CSE-induced up-regulation of Platelet Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) & E-selectin and inhibited monocytes-endothelial cell adhesion. The anti-inflammatory effects correlated with the anti-oxidative protection endowed by these compounds as evidenced by upregulation of NADPH: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and reduced cellular oxidative stress. CSE-induced release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) was inhibited by all tested compounds although the effect was not strictly dose-dependent. Further in vivo studies are required to validate our results and expand our current study to include combinatorial treatments.
Protecting the BBB endothelium against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress using popular antioxidants: Are they really beneficial? Brain Res. 2015 November