Polyphenols: Modulators of Platelet Function and Platelet Microparticle Generation?
Platelets and platelet microparticles (PMPs) play a key role in the pathophysiology of vascular disorders such as coronary artery disease and stroke. In atherosclerosis, for example, the disruption of the plaque exposes endogenous agonists such as collagen, which activates platelets. Platelet hyper-activation and the high levels of PMPs generated in such situations pose a thrombotic risk that can lead to strokes or myocardial infarctions. Interestingly, dietary polyphenols are gaining much attention due to their potential to mimic the antiplatelet activity of treatment drugs such as aspirin and clopidogrel that target the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-collagen and cyclooxygenease-1 (COX-1)-thromboxane platelet activation pathways respectively. Platelet function tests such as aggregometry and flow cytometry used to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs can also be used to assess the antiplatelet potential of dietary polyphenols. Despite the low bioavailability of polyphenols, several in vitro and dietary intervention studies have reported antiplatelet effects of polyphenols. This review presents a summary of platelet function in terms of aggregation, secretion, activation marker expression, and PMP release. Furthermore, the review will critically evaluate studies demonstrating the impact of polyphenols on aggregation and PMP release.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Dec 24;21(1):146. doi: 10.3390/ijms21010146. PMID: 31878290; PMCID: PMC6981839.