Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Function and Adaptation to Exercise: New Perspectives in Nutrition.
Cells have the ability to adapt to stressful environments as a part of their evolution. Physical exercise induces an increase of a demand for energy that must be met by mitochondria as the main (ATP) provider. However, this process leads to the increase of free radicals and the so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are necessary for the maintenance of cell signaling and homeostasis. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis is influenced by exercise in continuous crosstalk between the mitochondria and the nuclear genome. Excessive workloads may induce severe mitochondrial stress, resulting in oxidative damage. In this regard, the objective of this work was to provide a general overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial adaptation during exercise and to understand if some nutrients such as antioxidants may be implicated in blunt adaptation and/or an impact on the performance of exercise by different means.