Overcoming the exacerbating effects of ranitidine on NSAID-induced small intestinal toxicity with quercetin: Providing a complete GI solution
There is a need to find/discover novel leads to treat complex and/or multi-factorial-pathogenic disease(s) like Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)-induced gastroenteropathy or gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity as it has emerged as an important medical and socioeconomic problem. There is no approved therapeutic strategy to prevent NSAID-induced enteropathic damage and highly effective gastro-protective drugs such as ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN) exacerbate it. In this purview, the multi target drug discovery approach (MTDD), combination approach and hit to lead strategies based on the foundation of ethnopharmacology and/or reverse pharmacology holds strong potential. Hence, the primary objectives of the current study were to explore the mechanism behind the preventative/curative effects of quercetin (QCT) on RAN exacerbated diclofenac sodium (DIC)-induced enteropathic damage and to assess the effects of co-administration of QCT and RAN on DIC-induced gastropathic damage in rats. Rats were treated twice daily with QCT (35, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 PO) and/or RAN (15 mg kg-1 PO) or vehicle for a total of 10 days. In some experiments, DIC (9 mg kg-1) was administered orally twice daily for the final 5 days of RAN/QCT + RAN/vehicle administration. Rats in all the groups were fasted after the last dose on 9th day (free access to water). 12 h after the last dose on 10th day, rats were euthanized and their GI tracts were assessed for haemorrhagic damage, alteration in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, lipid peroxidation, intestinal permeability and GI luminal pH alterations along with haematological and biochemical estimations. The macroscopic, haematological, biochemical and histological evidences suggested that, though, RAN prevented the DIC-induced gastric injury, it exacerbated enteropathic damage. However, QCT not only significantly attenuated the RAN-induced exacerbation of enteropathic damage caused by DIC at the doses of 50 and 100 mg kg-1, but, this combination provided complete GI safety against the toxic effects of DIC too. The mechanisms behind the gastro-enteroprotective ability of QCT may be related to its ability to inhibit XO activity thus, preventing enhanced oxidative stress on GI tissues, prevent lipid peroxidation, IP alteration and alteration in GI luminal pH. The preventative effects of QCT on NSAID-induced gastroenteropathy were ably supported by the QCT induced prevention of GI blood loss and serum protein loss. These pharmaco-mechanistic results of QCT are aligning to combination based MTDD approach and hence we propose it as a promising lead to treat NSAID-gastroenteropahty and related complications.