Study Title:

Ocular conditions and dry eye due to traditional and new forms of smoking: A review.

Study Abstract

Addiction to cigarette smoking has high prevalence rates recorded worldwide. Smoking has been linked to several life-threatening systemic conditions such as cancer, heart attack and stroke, in addition to a range of ocular pathologies. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (EC) have emerged as alternatives to smoking. ECs are nicotine delivery devices which produce an aerosol by heating, rather than combusting, a liquid which contains nicotine, flavours and preservatives. This review focuses on the association of traditional and new forms of smoking with dry eye disease, contact lens wear and four other common ocular diseases: cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and Graves' ophthalmopathy. It is concluded that smoking and vaping appear as a risk factor for the aforementioned ocular conditions. An evidence-based, clear link between cigarette smoking, or EC vaping and ocular problems is yet to be discovered.

Study Information

Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2020 Jun;43(3):277-284. doi: 10.1016/j.clae.2020.02.009. Epub 2020 Feb 25. PMID: 32111452.

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