Myopia is a refractive anomaly, a global public health issue, mainly due to an increase in axial length of the eyeball. Myopia is increasing worldwide with the appearance of a "myopia global growing epidemic". In children under 6 years old, 20 % have abnormalities, the most common of which are primarily refractive abnormalities, followed by strabismus and amblyopia. Myopia presents a major risk of complications, correlated with its severity, such as retinal detachment, retinal neovascularization, early cataracts and glaucoma. In children with high myopia, syndromic myopia must be explored. Early detection of myopia onset and progression is essential to myopia control strategies. The most promising treatments include outdoor activities, defocusing corrective lenses, defocusing contact lenses, orthokeratology and pharmacological treatments with low-dose atropine.
Med Sci (Paris). 2020 Aug-Sep;36(8-9):763-768. French. doi: 10.1051/medsci/2020131. Epub 2020 Aug 21. PMID: 32821053.