Metformin activation of AMPK-dependent pathways is neuroprotective in human neural stem cells agains
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the general consequence of dementia and is diagnostic neuropathology by the cumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein aggregates, which are thought to promote mitochondrial dysfunction processes leading to neurodegeneration. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a critical regulator of energy homeostasis and a major player in lipid and glucose metabolism, is potentially implied in the mitochondrial deficiency of AD. Metformin, one of the widespread used anti- metabolic disease drugs, use its actions in part by stimulation of AMPK. While the mechanisms of AD are well established, the neuronal roles for AMPK in AD are still not well understood. In the present study, human neural stem cells (hNSCs) exposed to Aβ had significantly reduced cell viability, which correlated with decreased AMPK, neuroprotective genes (Bcl-2 and CREB) and mitochondria associated genes (PGC1α, NRF-1 and Tfam) expressions, as well as increased activation of caspase 3/9 activity and cytosolic cytochrome c. Co-treatment with metformin distinct abolished the Aβ-caused actions in hNSCs. Metformin also significantly rescued hNSCs from Aβ-mediated mitochondrial deficiency (lower D-loop level, mitochondrial mass, maximal respiratory function, COX activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential). Importantly, co-treatment with metformin significantly restored fragmented mitochondria to almost normal morphology in the hNSCs with Aβ. These findings extend our understanding of the central role of AMPK in Aβ-related neuronal impairment. Thus, a better understanding of AMPK might assist in both the recognition of its critical effects and the implementation of new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of AD.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
AMPK; Aβ; HNSCs; Mitochondrial function; PGC1α
Metformin activation of AMPK-dependent pathways is neuroprotective in human neural stem cells against Amyloid-beta-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.
Exp Cell Res.