Mechanisms of blue light-induced eye hazard and protective measures: a review.
The risk of blue light exposure to human health has attracted increased research attention. Blue light, with relatively high energy, can cause irreversible photochemical damage to eye tissue. Excessive exposure of the eye to blue light tends to cause a series of alterations, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial apoptosis, inflammatory apoptosis, mitochondrial apoptosis and DNA damage, resulting in the development of dry eye disease, glaucoma, and keratitis. Accordingly, physical protection, chemical and pharmaceutical protective measures, gene therapy, and other methods are widely used in the clinical treatment of blue light hazard. We reviewed the studies on possible blue light-induced signaling pathways and mechanisms in the eye and summarized the therapeutic approaches to addressing blue light hazard.