Magnesium Is a Key Regulator of the Balance between Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation in the Presence of Vitamin D₃.
Magnesium (Mg) is crucial for bone health. Low concentrations of Mg inhibit the activity of osteoblasts while promoting that of osteoclasts, with the final result of inducing osteopenia. Conversely, little is known about the effects of high concentrations of extracellular Mg on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Since the differentiation and activation of these cells is coordinated by vitamin D₃ (VD3), we investigated the effects of high extracellular Mg, as well as its impact on VD3 activity, in these cells. U937 cells were induced to osteoclastic differentiation by VD3 in the presence of supra-physiological concentrations (>1 mM) of extracellular Mg. The effect of high Mg concentrations was also studied in human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) induced to differentiate into osteoblasts by VD3. We demonstrate that high extra-cellular Mg levels potentiate VD3-induced osteoclastic differentiation, while decreasing osteoblastogenesis. We hypothesize that Mg might reprogram VD3 activity on bone remodeling, causing an unbalanced activation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jan 17;20(2). pii: E385. doi: 10.3390/ijms20020385.