Lipoprotein(a) catabolism: a case of multiple receptors.
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing plasma lipoprotein similar in structure to low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Lp(a) is more complex than LDL due to the presence of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], a large glycoprotein sharing extensive homology with plasminogen, which confers some unique properties onto Lp(a) particles. ApoB and apo(a) are essential for the assembly and catabolism of Lp(a); however, other proteins associated with the particle may modify its metabolism. Lp(a) specifically carries a cargo of oxidised phospholipids (OxPL) bound to apo(a) which stimulates many proinflammatory pathways in cells of the arterial wall, a key property underlying its pathogenicity and association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the liver and kidney are the major tissues implicated in Lp(a) clearance, the pathways for Lp(a) uptake appear to be complex and are still under investigation. Biochemical studies have revealed an exceptional array of receptors that associate with Lp(a) either via its apoB, apo(a), or OxPL components. These receptors fall into five main categories, namely 'classical' lipoprotein receptors, toll-like and scavenger receptors, lectins, and plasminogen receptors. The roles of these receptors have largely been dissected by genetic manipulation in cells or mice, although their relative physiological importance for removal of Lp(a) from the circulation remains unclear. The LPA gene encoding apo(a) has an overwhelming effect on Lp(a) levels which precludes any clear associations between potential Lp(a) receptor genes and Lp(a) levels in population studies. Targeted approaches and the selection of unique Lp(a) phenotypes within populations has nevertheless allowed for some associations to be made. Few of the proposed Lp(a) receptors can specifically be manipulated with current drugs and, as such, it is not currently clear whether any of these receptors could provide relevant targets for therapeutic manipulation of Lp(a) levels. This review summarises the current status of knowledge about receptor-mediated pathways for Lp(a) catabolism.
Copyright © 2018 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pathology. 2019 Feb;51(2):155-164. doi: 10.1016/j.pathol.2018.11.003. Epub 2018 Dec 27.