Leptin in autoimmune mechanisms of systemic rheumatic diseases.
In the last two decades, white adipose tissue (WAT) has been recognized as a key actor of many physiological and pathological conditions. WAT is able to produce mediators, named "adipokines", which may affect systemic homeostasis. In particular, leptin is not only involved in appetite and energy metabolism, but also in immune system. Increasing evidence established that leptin can regulate both innate and adaptive immunity mainly with pro-inflammatory effects but also, to a lesser extent, with anti-inflammatory features. In autoimmune diseases, a failure or breakdown of the mechanisms of self-tolerance is observed. Leptin, which plays an important role in the control of immune balance, has been involved in autoimmunity generation and maintenance. In this review, it has been provided an up-to-date report about the role of leptin in systemic autoimmune diseases, with particular reference to connective tissue diseases, inflammatory arthritis, and vasculitis. KEYWORDS: Adipokines; Connective tissue diseases; Inflammatory arthritis; Leptin; Vasculitis
Cancer Lett. 2018 Jun 1;423:139-146. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2018.03.011. Epub 2018 Mar 13.