Lactoferrin Induces Calcium Influx Into Candida to Help Kill It
METHODS: The effect of compounds interfering with Ca(2+) homeostasis on the hLF(1-11)-induced candidacidal activity, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species production were evaluated using a killing assay, rhodamine 123 staining, and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, respectively. The increase in cellular Ca(2+) content was measured using (45)Ca(2+).
RESULTS: Our results revealed that Ruthenium Red, which inhibits the mitochondrial Ca(2+)-uniporter and the voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) release from internal stores, blocked (P<0.05) the hLF(1-11)-induced candidacidal activity as well as changes in the membrane potential of mitochondria, and reactive oxygen species production. Oxalate, which precipitates Ca(2+) in intracellular organelles, decreased (P<0.05) the peptide-induced changes in the membrane potential of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species production, and candidacidal activity. Furthermore, the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin combined with high CaCl(2) concentrations enhanced the hLF(1-11)-induced candidacidal activity. Moreover, hLF(1-11) caused an influx of Ca(2+) from the extracellular medium into C. albicans reaching a three-fold increase at 2 h, whereas no increase was found in unexposed cells. In agreement, the Ca(2+)-chelator EGTA blocked the peptide-induced candidacidal activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, probably through subsequent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, is essential for the hLF(1-11)-induced candidacidal activity.
Lupetti A, Brouwer CP, Dogterom-Ballering HE, Senesi S, Campa M, Van Dissel JT, Nibbering PH.
Release of calcium from intracellular stores and subsequent uptake by mitochondria are essential for the candidacidal activity of an N-terminal peptide of human lactoferrin.
J Antimicrob Chemother.
Department of Infectious Diseases, C5-P, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.