Lack of Fiber Sets the Stage for Metabolic Weight Gain Problems
METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We examined the metabolic characteristics of 135 non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) women aged 25-64 years. Twenty-five women (BMI <25 kg/m(2) and visceral fat adiposity (VFA) > or =100 cm(2)) were classified as MONW and 25 women (BMI <25 kg/m(2) and VFA <100 cm(2)), pair-matched for age, weight, height, and menopausal status, as control group. Plasma lipid profiles and adipocytokines were evaluated in these two groups.
RESULTS: MONW subjects had higher systolic (P < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.005) and higher concentrations of triacylglycerol (TG) (P < 0.005), insulin (P < 0.01), and free fatty acid (FFA) (P < 0.05) than control subjects. There was no significant difference between two groups in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations; however, MONW subjects had smaller LDL particles (P < 0.01) and higher concentrations of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Moreover, MONW subjects had higher concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05) and leptin (P < 0.05), and lower plasma adiponectin concentrations (P < 0.05). Higher intake of saturated fat with lower ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) and lower fiber intake than normal subjects were found in MONW women.
DISCUSSION: We found an unfavorable inflammatory profile and a more atherogenic LDL profile in MONW female subjects even in the absence of a known CVD risk factors. Moreover, MONW consumed more saturated fat and less fiber than the control group.
Hyun YJ, Koh SJ, Chae JS, Kim JY, Kim OY, Lim HH, Jang Y, Park S, Ordovas JM, Lee JH.
Atherogenecity of LDL and unfavorable adipokine profile in metabolically obese, normal-weight woman.
Obesity (Silver Spring).
Yonsei University Research Institute of Science for Aging, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.