Is There an Ideal Diet to Protect against Iodine Deficiency?
Iodine deficiency is a global issue and affects around 2 billion people worldwide, with pregnant women as a high-risk group. Iodine-deficiency prevention began in the 20th century and started with global salt iodination programmes, which aimed to improve the iodine intake status globally. Although it resulted in the effective eradication of the endemic goitre, it seems that salt iodination did not resolve all the issues. Currently, it is recommended to limit the consumption of salt, which is the main source of iodine, as a preventive measure of non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension or cancer the prevalence of which is increasing. In spite of the fact that there are other sources of iodine, such as fish, seafood, dairy products, water, and vegetables, the high consumption of processed food with a high content of unionised salt, alternative diets or limited salt intake can still lead to iodine deficiency. Thus, iodine deficiency remains a relevant issue, with new, preventive solutions necessary. However, it appears that there is no diet which would fully cover the iodine requirements, and iodine food supplementation is still required.
Nutrients. 2021 Feb 4;13(2):513. doi: 10.3390/nu13020513. PMID: 33557336; PMCID: PMC7914421.