Interdependence of Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Squalene-Implication for Cardiovascular Health.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been recognized as the leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 31% of global mortality. Among the risk factors of CVD, hyperlipidemia has been established as the most potent risk factor. Statins, a class of drug that reduces lower-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), are the preferred medical treatment. However, due to the development of statin-associated muscle symptoms, statins are associated with patients' discontinuation and nonadherence. Other statin-induced side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal upset, all contribute to patients choosing alternative medicines. Squalene (SQ), an unsaturated hydrocarbon naturally synthesized in plants and animals, could become the alternative treatment or supplementary agent for cardiovascular health. SQ has been shown to exert cardioprotective effect via its antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses are closely related to each other, which proposes an interdependence relation between antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Therefore, this review explores the interdependence between the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of SQ implicated on cardiovascular health.
Life (Basel). 2021 Jan 29;11(2):103. doi: 10.3390/life11020103. PMID: 33573041; PMCID: PMC7911491.