Inflammatory manifestations of HTLV-1 and their therapeutic options.
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is one of the most intriguing retroviruses infecting humans. Most commonly, infection remains undetected, since it does not cause obvious harm, yet in 4-9% of patients, this infection can be devastating, causing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and/or HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). This review concentrates on all inflammatory aspects of HTLV-1 infection: HAM/TSP, HTLV-1 associated uveitis, HTLV-1 associated conjunctivitis, sicca syndrome and interstitial keratitis, HTLV-1 associated Sjögren's syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, HTLV-1 associated pulmonary disease, infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1, HTLV-1 associated inflammatory myositis and HTLV-1 associated arthritis. With the exception of HAM/TSP treatment, studies of these conditions are sparse and even for HAM/TSP, the level of evidence is limited. While control or elimination of infection remains a goal, most therapy beyond symptomatic management is directed at the immune response to HTLV-1.
Martin F, Taylor GP, Jacobson S. Inflammatory manifestations of HTLV-1 and their therapeutic options. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2014 November Department of Biology, Hull and York Medical School, Center for Immunology and Infection, University of York, YO10 5DD, UK.