Increased Diet Quality is Associated with Long-Term Reduction of Abdominal and Pericardial Fat.
This study examined the longitudinal associations between genetic risk, change in diet quality, and change in visceral adipose tissue (ΔVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ΔSAT), and pericardial adipose tissue (ΔPAT).
A total of 1,677 Framingham Heart Study participants who had ectopic fat depots measured using computed tomography were analyzed. Diet quality was quantified using a Mediterranean-style diet score (MDS) and genetic risk by depot-specific genetic risk scores (GRSs).
Per SD improvement in MDS, there was 50 cm3 (95% CI: 14-86; P = 0.007) less fat accumulation in VAT, 52 cm3 (95% CI: 12-92; P = 0.01) less fat accumulation in SAT, and 1.3 cm3 (95% CI: 0.1-2.4; P = 0.04) less fat accumulation in PAT. No association was observed between GRSs and ΔVAT or ΔSAT. Each 1-SD increase in the PAT GRS was associated with a 1.2-cm3 (95% CI: 0.1-2.3; P = 0.03) increase in ΔPAT. In participants with higher PAT GRS, those with ΔMDS ≥ 0 had a favorable change in PAT compared with the counterparts with ΔMDS < 0 (P = 0.008).
Longitudinal improvements in diet quality are associated with less ectopic fat accumulation. This study suggests that diet quality may play a critical role in improving ectopic adiposity profiles.
© 2019 The Obesity Society.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 Mar 1. doi: 10.1002/oby.22427. [Epub ahead of print]