Impact of Polyphenols on Mast Cells With Special Emphasis on the Effect of Quercetin and Luteolin
Polyphenols are ubiquitous in food and have long been recognized to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Mast cells (MCs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, allergy, autoimmunity and cancer. MCs derive from hematopoietic progenitor cells, reside virtually in all vascularized tissue and are activated by crosslinking of FceRI-bound IgE (at very high affinity: 1 × 1010 M-1) with multivalent antigen. MCs in cytoplasmic granules release preformed chemical mediators, and also they can release lipid mediators and cytokines/chemokines without degranulation. Luteolin, 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, is a flavonoid contained in many kinds of plants including vegetables and fruits. This anti-oxidant product inhibits interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-triggered keratinocytes, and is a candidate for use in alternative therapies in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a ubiquitous flavonoid which exhibits anti-cancer, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and causes a reduction in the availability of nitrite that influences vascular function. Quercetin exerts physiological functions though the interaction with phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), kinase (MEK) 1, and others, and has a negative effect on FceRI cross-linking and other activating receptors on mast cells. In this article we report for the first time the interrelationship between mast cells and polyphenols.