Impact of Astaxanthin on Diabetes Pathogenesis and Chronic Complications
Oxidative stress (OS) plays a pivotal role in diabetes mellitus (DM) onset, progression, and chronic complications. Hyperglycemia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to reduce insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, to impair insulin sensitivity and signaling in insulin-responsive tissues, and to alter endothelial cells function in both type 1 and type 2 DM. As a powerful antioxidant without side effects, astaxanthin (ASX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, has been suggested to contribute to the prevention and treatment of DM-associated pathologies. ASX reduces inflammation, OS, and apoptosis by regulating different OS pathways though the exact mechanism remains elusive. Based on several studies conducted on type 1 and type 2 DM animal models, orally or parenterally administrated ASX improves insulin resistance and insulin secretion; reduces hyperglycemia; and exerts protective effects against retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. However, more experimental support is needed to define conditions for its use. Moreover, its efficacy in diabetic patients is poorly explored. In the present review, we aimed to identify the up-to-date biological effects and underlying mechanisms of ASX on the ROS-induced DM-associated metabolic disorders and subsequent complications. The development of an in-depth research to better understand the biological mechanisms involved and to identify the most effective ASX dosage and route of administration is deemed necessary.
Mar Drugs . 2020 Jul 9;18(7):357. doi: 10.3390/md18070357.