The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis plays a fundamental role in the development of the breast. The maintenance of breast tissue architecture is aided by its effect on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. There has been increasing recognition of its role as a major determinant of breast cancer and, more recently, its involvement in the development of resistance to both tamoxifen and an important novel therapy for advanced disease, trastuzumab (Herceptin). Here, we discuss the influence of the GH-IGF-I axis in normal mammary development and homeostasis, its putative role in breast tumorigenesis and its interactions with estrogen signalling.
Laban C, Bustin SA, Jenkins PJ. The GH-IGF-I axis and breast cancer. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003 January Department of Breast Surgery, St Bartholomew's Hospital, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE, UK.