Hyaluronic acid injection reduces inflammatory and apoptotic markers through modulation of AKT by repressing the oxidative status of neutrophils from osteoarthritic synovial fluid.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection into the osteoarthritis (OA) knee is one of the most popular treatment methods. The study aimed to determine whether HA exhibits antioxidant and antiapoptotic functions in the treatment of OA. Sixty-two outpatient patients with a diagnosis of knee OA were recruited. All patients received (HA) injections twice at a 2-week interval. Synovial fluid through sono-guided aspiration was collected for neutrophils isolation. Oxidative stress, apoptotic markers and related pathways in neutrophils were investigated. Among the oxidative stress markers, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) significantly decreased after HA injection, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase did not change, which indicated that HA injection had an antioxidant effect that was not through activation of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, we found that HA injection decreased p-AKT levels and decreased p-p53 and p-p38 but not p-GSK-3β. Moreover, we confirmed that HA injection reduced proapoptotic markers through a mitochondria-dependent pathway and proinflammatory events. In vitro investigations also confirmed that HA reduced TNF-α-caused apoptosis in chondrocytes, however, this phenomenon was vanished by AKT inhibitor. Taken together, HA injection into human OA knees resulted antioxidant and antiapoptotic functions, as well as reduced inflammation, through modulation of the AKT pathway.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2020 Dec 15;165(Pt B):2765-2772. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.154. Epub 2020 Oct 24. PMID: 33736281.