Hawthorn Polyphenol Extract Inhibits UVB-Induced Skin Photoaging by Regulating MMP Expression and Type I Procollagen Production in Mice.
Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation can cause skin aging by increasing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production and collagen degradation, leading to the formation of wrinkles. This study investigated whether hawthorn polyphenol extract (HPE) protects against UVB-induced skin photoaging using HaCaT human keratinocytes, normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), and mice. Analysis of the phenol composition of HPE by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that chlorogenic acid (13.5%), procyanidin B2 (19.2%), and epicatechin (18.8%) collectively accounted for 51.4% of total phenol content and represent the active ingredients of hawthorn fruit. A cell viability assay revealed that HPE treatment promoted cell proliferation in HaCaT cells and HDFs. On the other hand, MMP-1 and type I procollagen production was decreased and increased, respectively, in UVB-exposed cells treated with HPE as compared with those without treatment, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxylin and eosin and Weigert staining of dermal tissue specimens from mice demonstrated that HPE also reversed UVB-induced epidermal thickening and dermal damage. The increase in production of reactive oxygen species and decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity as well as the increase in nuclear factor-κB activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation induced by UVB irradiation were reversed by HPE (100 or 300 mg/kg body weight), which also suppressed MMP expression and stimulated the production of type I procollagen in the dorsal skin of UVB-irradiated mice. These results suggest that HPE is a natural product that can prevent UVB radiation-induced skin photoaging.