This study was designed to examine the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against myocardial injury (MI) induced by isoproterenol (ISO), in a rat model. Induction of rats with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) for 2 days resulted in a significant decrease in the activities of heart mitochondrial enzymes (isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain enzymes (NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase). The activities of lysosomal enzymes (alpha-d-glucuronidase, alpha-d-N-acetylglucosaminidase, cathepsin-D, acid phosphatases and alpha-d-galactosidase) were increased significantly in the heart and serum of ISO-induced rats. The prior administration of GSP for 6 days a week for 5 weeks significantly increased the activities of mitochondrial and respiratory chain enzymes and significantly decreased the activities of lysosomal enzymes in the heart tissues of ISO-induced rats, which proves the stress stabilizing action of GSP. Oral administration of grape seed proanthocyanidins alone (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) to normal rats did not show any significant effect in all the parameters studied. These biochemical functional alterations were supported by the macroscopic enzyme mapping assay of ischemic myocardium. Thus, this study shows that 100 and 150 mg/kg of GSP gives protection against ISO-induced MI and demonstrates that GSP has a significant effect in the protection of heart.
Karthikeyan K, Sarala Bai BR, Niranjali Devaraj S. Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorates isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats by stabilizing mitochondrial and lysosomal enzymes: an in vivo study. Life Sci. 2007 November Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025, India.