Grape Seed Extract Protects Against LPS Toxicity
METHODS: Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were treated with non-toxic concentrations of either GSE or commercial polyphenols (gallic acid [GA] and [-]-epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG]) and stimulated with LPS of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans or Fusobacterium nucleatum, and iNOS expression was evaluated by immunoblotting. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified using the colorimetric Griess assay, whereas ROS production was measured with the fluorescent 123-dihydrorhodamine dye.
RESULTS: GSE strongly decreased NO and ROS production and iNOS expression by LPS-stimulated macrophages. GA also revealed a strong inhibitory effect on NO production without affecting iNOS expression but slightly increasing ROS production. EGCG showed an inhibitory effect on NO and ROS production and on iNOS expression by macrophages.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that proanthocyanidins have potent antioxidant properties and should be considered a potential agent in the prevention of periodontal diseases.
Houde V, Grenier D, Chandad F.
Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins against oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharides of periodontopathogens.
Research Group in Oral Ecology, Faculty of Dentistry, Laval University, Québec City, QC, Canada.